"Change in apparent frequency of a periodic signal such as a pressure wave or light due to movement of the emitter or receiver." 
"The change in the observed frequency of a wave caused by the time rate of change in the length of the path of travel between the source and the observer." 
- . Arthropod Bioacoustics: Neurobiology and Behaviour. Ithaca, New York: Comstock; 1989.
- . Glossarial Index. Acoustic Behavior of Animals. Acoustic Behavior of Animals. Elsevier; 1963.
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