Glossary

Click one of the letters above to go to the page of all terms beginning with that letter.

A

anthrophony

See anthropophony.

"The term used originally was anthrophony, meant to specify human-generated sound as a component of the soundscape. It is a word that we have been using, incorrectly, since the early 2000s. Only recently, while giving talks in France during the summer of 2014, was it pointed out to me by our French hosts in Quimper (Pierre Mens-Pégail) and Paris (Jérôme Sueur) taht the Greek prefix anthro meant cave, and not human, as we mistakenly assumed. Since we were not adressing the sounds that caves produce, in order to correct the term we needed to add a 'po' and modify the spelling to anthropophony." [1]


References

  1. Krause BL. Voices of the Wild. Yale University Press; 2015.

Synonyms: anthropophonyanthropophony

anthropophony

"all of the sounds we humans generate. Some of these are controlled, like usic, language or theatre. But most of what humans produce is chaotic or incoherent - sometimes referred to as noise." [1]


References

  1. Krause BL. Voices of the Wild. Yale University Press; 2015.
auditory organ

An organ used by an organism for hearing.

"An insect will be said to hear when it is demonstrably responsive to sound. An auditory organ is one which can be shown to mediate the above response or which can itself be shown by more direct means to respond to sound." [1]


References

  1. Pumphrey RJ. Hearing in Insects. Biological Reviews. 1940;15(1):107 - 132. Available at: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/toc/brv/15/1.

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B

bioacoustician

a collector and student of wildlife sounds [1] 


References

  1. Krause BL. Voices of the Wild. Yale University Press; 2015.
bioacoustics

"The study of sounds living animals produce." [1]


References

  1. Krause BL. Voices of the Wild. Yale University Press; 2015.
biophony

"the collective sound produced by all living organisms that reside in a particular biome." [1]


References

  1. Krause BL. Voices of the Wild. Yale University Press; 2015.

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C

Calling song

The song produced by an isolated male.

Carrier wave

The carrier wave is the fundamnetal wave of a resonant song

celerity

Archaic: speed.

Chant d'appel

See Calling Song

Chant de cour

See Courtship song

Chant de rivalité

See Rivalry song.

Chant ordinaire

See Calling song

Courtship song

The special song produced by a male when close to a female.

Crescendo

A progressive increase in amplitude.

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D

Diplosyllable

A syllable in which sound is priduced by both to- and fro- movements of the stridulatory apparatus.

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E

Echeme

A first-order assemblage of syllables.

Echeme-sequence

A first-order assemblage of echemes.

echte Gehörsinn

"True sense of hearing", defined by von Buddenbrock (1937) [1] as a sense detceted by a resonating organ. 

"Wir werden einen Gehorsinn nur dann als bewiesen ansehen, wenn sich nachweisen lasst, dass das betreffende Sinnesorgan seiner Struktur nach spezifisch auf die Wahrnehmung von Schallwellen eingestellt ist. Das Kriterium des Gehorsinns ist daher das besonders ausgebildete Gehororgan, welches als charac- terisches Element in stets wiederkehrende Weise eine oder mehrere Membranen besitzt, die zum Mitschwingen durch Hesonanz befahigt sind.” [1]

This distinction between hearing and other vinratory senses, such as touch, is dismissed as anthropocentric by Pumphrey [2] : "Such a definition is clearly founded on the human analogy. The first sentence seems to imply that there is some fundamental distinction between sound waves and other mechanical stimuli, presumably on the grounds that touch and hearing are distinct in man, for the assumption can hardly be maintained in the face of the evidence bearing on the evolution of sound receptors either in vertebrate or other animals. But the second sentence goes even further. The final criterion of an auditory organ is not its specific sensitivity to sound waves, but a resemblance in certain arbitrary structural particulars to the human ear. If this criterion be accepted, fish are deaf by definition ... and only those insects with tympanic organs can hear. It is then necessary to invent an other sense, sensitivity to vibrations or Erschütterungssinn to explain the responsiveness to sound of animals which have no echter Gehorsinn."


References

  1. von Buddenbrock WD. Grundiss der vergleichenden Physiologie. Berlin: Borntraeger; 1937.
  2. Pumphrey RJ. Hearing in Insects. Biological Reviews. 1940;15(1):107 - 132. Available at: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/toc/brv/15/1.
erschütterungssinn

Time devised by von Buddenbrock [1] for animals that can detect vibration without a resonant organ (i.e. those without echte Gehörsinn).

This distinction is criticised by Pumphrey [2] : "This invention has had unfortunate consequences, because of the tendency to regard sensitivity to vibrations as a special kind of touch sense in quite a separate category from true hearing instead of regarding it as including true hearing, which would be both logical and consistent with what is known of the evolution of hearing organs."


References

  1. von Buddenbrock WD. Grundiss der vergleichenden Physiologie. Berlin: Borntraeger; 1937.
  2. Pumphrey RJ. Hearing in Insects. Biological Reviews. 1940;15(1):107 - 132. Available at: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/toc/brv/15/1.

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G

geophony

"the non-biological natural sounds prodiced in a givenhabitat, like wind in the trees or grasses, water in a stream, waves at the ocean shore, or movement of the earth." [1]


References

  1. Krause BL. Voices of the Wild. Yale University Press; 2015.
Gewöhnlicher Gesang

See Calling song

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H

hearing

The ability of organism to sense sound.

"An insect will be said to hear when it is demonstrably responsive to sound." [1]

"...the only distinction made between hearing and the tactile senses is based on the intensity factor and is quite arbitrary. Atthepresenttimenoconfusionarisesinpracticebecausethesensitivity of the auditory organs so far investigated is of a different order from the sensitivity of end-organs usually regarded as tactile. But the distinction is not fundamental, and it can be regarded as certain that further work will demonstrate the existence of end-organs intermediate in sensitivity between “hearing” and “tactile” end-organs. There will then be no justification for attempting a sharp separation." [1]


References

  1. Pumphrey RJ. Hearing in Insects. Biological Reviews. 1940;15(1):107 - 132. Available at: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/toc/brv/15/1.
Hemisyllable

The sound produced by a to- OR fro- movement of the stridulatory apparatus.

Broughton (1963) took the view that this term should only apply to either of the components of a diplosyllable, preferring the term haplosyllable for syllables where either the to or fro motion was silent. Later authors (e.g. Ragge & Reynolds, 1998) often replace haplosyllable with hemisyllable.

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K

Kilpalaulut

See Rivalry song

Kosiolaulut

See Courtship song

Kutsulaulut

See Calling song

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L

Laulu

See Song

Lentoäänet

See Crepitation

Lockgesang

See Calling song

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M

Macrosyllable

The songs of number of bush-crickets include two contrasting typoes of syllable, differing markedly in duration. The longer ones are termed macrosyllables.

Microsyllable

The songs of number of bush-crickets include two contrasting typoes of syllable, differing markedly in duration. The shorter ones are termed microsyllables.

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N

Normal song

See: Calling song

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P

pars stridens

The file portion of the stridulatory device. The plectrum is moved along the file to produce sound.

partes stridentes

see pars stridens 

phonoreception

Term propsed by Beer et al 1899 [1] to replace hearing to "eliminate from the study of invertebrate behaviour all reference to human experience" [2].

"This proposal largely failed of its object. On the one hand, it was ignored by the majority of naturalists and morphologists. On the other, where it was adopted by the experimentalists, they often took over the new terms, but used them merelyassynonymsfor the old. The languagewas new, but the meaning was the same, and the core of the problem remained untouched. This problem, restated with reference to the subject of this review, is briefly the problem of defining the nature of the evidence which will justify the attribution of a sense of hearing to animals which differ radically from man in their organization and into whose 'minds', if such exist, we have in the nature of things no opportunity of seeing." [2]

"It has in no way cleared up the muddle which inevitably arises when a human observer endeavours to distinguish between phonic and tactile senses in an animal on the basis of his own sensory experience.This confusion is apparent right through the literature up to the present time." [2]


References

Phrase

See Echeme

Plectrum

Part of the stridulatory apparatus that is moved along the file (pars stridens) to produce a sound.

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R

Rivalengesang

See Rivalry song

Rivalry song

The special song produced by two or more males reacting to one another.

Rufgesang

See Calling song

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S

Seewave

R package for the analysis and synthesis of sound (seewave).

Sibilant

Making or characterized by a hissing sound.

Silbe

See Syllable

Song

In bioacoustics this term is used in two main sense: in the broadest sense it is applied to the deliberate acoustic output of animals (or a group of animals) in general, and in a more restricted sense it is applied to the acoustic output of a particular species or individual. [bib]17157[/bib]

sound wave

"Sound is arbitrarily defined as consisting of disturbances of the air of low intensity irrespective of whether or not they are of such a frequency and intensity as to produce the sensation of hearing in a human being. This definition of sound is open to objections. First,it excludes water-borne sounds. ... Secondly,it excludes sounds transmitted through the substrate." [1]


References

  1. Pumphrey RJ. Hearing in Insects. Biological Reviews. 1940;15(1):107 - 132. Available at: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/toc/brv/15/1.
Stridulate

See stridulation.

Stridulation

Sound produced by rubbing a series of projections (file; pars stridens) against a plectrum.

Strigilation

Sound created by rubbing body parts (more general than stridulation).

Strophe

See Echeme-sequence

Syllabe

See Syllable

Syllable

In Orthoptera:
The sound produced by one to-and-fro movement of the stridulatory appartus.

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U

Ultrasound

Sound beyond the upper frequency threshold of human hearing. The distinction between sound and ultrasound has no importance biologically except in relation to human hearing.

"Thus the terms 'sonic' and 'ultrasonic' apply to sounds of a frequency audible and inaudible, respectively, to the human ear; but the hearing organs of many insects respond to sound of both types." [1]


References

  1. Haskell PT. Insect sounds. London : Witherby; 1961.

Synonyms: ultrasonic

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V

Vers

See Echeme

Verse

See Echeme

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W

Werbegesang

See Courtship song

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Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith