"Principal frequenciesin the sound spectrum of a human (or analogous) utterance, which, for a particular individual, are diagnostic of particular speech-elements, especially vowels in which some three characteristic formants (different for each vowel and for each individual) are present. They are resonance frequencies originating in the vocal tract , and in some but not all cases can be attributed to parts of it. The individual differences, especially between amel and female, in the formant complement appropriate ot a given vowel might be expected to lead to confusion bya hearer, and indeed Broadbent succeeded in making an experimental audience identify one and the same synthetic sound as bit it one context and bet in another; the diagnostic properties of the formant-set of a particular individual are thus relativte to those of the rest of the utterance, which is taken intoa ccount, computer-wise, by the hearer. 
- . Glossarial Index. In: Acoustic Behavior of Animals. Acoustic Behavior of Animals. Elsevier; 1963.
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