"a common definition is the production of sound by voice; which presenst few difficulties if discussion is limited to the higher vertebrates. It will be clear, however, from study of this treatise, that there are many other machanisms in the animal kingdom where vibrating membranes cooperate with resonance cavities of some sort to produce what are essentially vocalized osunds in a manner essentially analogous to taht of teh vertebrate larynx and its accessories. There is therefore no real reason for limiting the use of the term to mechanisms of the higher vertebrate type. Nevertheless, in deference to common practice, and perhaps common sense, references to what is commonly accepted as vocal production have been enetered under phoantion, while other mechanisms have on the whole been entered under sound production, stridulation, or strigilation. Some overlapping is inevitable." [1]


  1. Broughton WB. Glossarial Index. Acoustic Behavior of Animals. Acoustic Behavior of Animals. Elsevier; 1963.

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Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith