"The production during flight (or by flight-like vibration of the wings while on the ground) of a rattling, whirring or buzzing sound; the sound so produced." 
"A crackling sound produced by some grasshoppers by rapidly opening their wings." 
- . The Songs of the Grasshoppers and Crickets of Western Europe. Colchester, Essex: Harley Books; 1998.
- . Cricket Radio: Tuning in the Night-singing Insects. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press; 2011.
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